Violette Leduc, objet littéraire non identifié

Violette Leduc, objet littéraire non identifié

    Après avoir mis en lumière la peintre Séraphine Louis, incarnée sur les pavés de Senlis par Yolande Moreau, Martin Provost rend hommage à une autre outcast, des lettres cette fois-ci : Violette Leduc, grâce à une Emmanuelle Devos parfois incandescente. 

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   On croit peut être à tort que l’autofiction est née dans les années 90 avec Christine Angot, Hervé Guibert ou Guillaume Dustan, mais il faut s’en détromper : l’étincelle initiale, c’est à une femme encore aujourd’hui trop peu lue, qu’en revient le mérite.

    De son vivant déjà, Violette Leduc était considérée comme une “écrivain pour écrivains”. Le film nous la présente d’abord aux côtés de Maurice Sachs (Olivier Py, trop rare au cinéma), qui le premier l’encourage à écrire, puis c’est au tour de Simone de Beauvoir (Sandrine Kiberlain, décidément abonnée aux rôles de bourgeoise pincèe depuis “Les femmes du sixième”) et Jean Genet (Jacques Bonnafé, également trop rare au cinéma) de sympathiser avec elle, au point que l’auteur du “Deuxième sexe” fait verser discrètement -via Gallimard, une rente mensuelle à l’écrivain pour qu’elle puisse survivre car la reconnaissance est longue à venir.

    Gravitent  aussi autour de Violette : Albert Camus (qui édite “L’asphyxie”, son premier roman, dans la collection L’Espoir qu’il lance chez Gallimard, hélas à petit tirage) mais aussi l’industriel, mécène et collectionneur de manuscrit Jacques Guérin (Olivier Gourmet). Après avoir abandonné le marché noir, Violette tire le diable pas la queue, car ses livres se vendent mal, et commencera à vendre une fois la cinquantaine atteinte. En cela, elle fournit un parfait double inversé de Françoise Sagan, qui décrocha la timballe dès son “Bonjour tristesse”, premier roman mis sous presses, et vécut dans l’aisance (relative car c’était un vrai panier percé).

    Le principal attrait de ce film est de montrer comment Beauvoir (Sandrine Kiberlain) et dans une moindre mesure Sartre (mais qu’on ne voit jamais à l’écran), comment donc Beauvoir va pousser Violette à persévérer malgré le manque de lecteurs, l’encourager à tout coucher sur papier, à se purger par les mots comme on purge des vipères. Et Violette en a des choses à dire : elle est bâtarde à une époque où ça signifie encore quelque chose, bisexuelle à une époque où ça se cache, va vers des hommes qui aiment les hommes (Sachs, Guérin) et la repooussent, a une personnalité borderline (elle passé quelques temps à la Vallée aux Loups, l’ancienne demeure de Châteaubriand devenue maison de repos) et doit affronter la censure de Gallimard, qui ne sait que faire d’écrits où s’étalent l’avortement ou les amours de dortoirs entre collégiennes.

    Le second attrait du film est sa photographie : clair obscur digne de Rembrandt pour Paris et lumières solaires d’une folle intensité pour Faucon, le village du sud de la France où Violette finit sa vie pour écrire tranquille. La dernière scène du film évoque un autre double inversé, non pas cette fois de Sagan mais de Séraphine : alors que la mystique Séraphine peignait ses fleurs chez elle, Violette peint la nature humaine “sur le motif”, dans la nature. Mais c’est en fait au fond d’elle qu’elle, dans ses plaies intimes, qu’elle trempe la plume.

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Jean-Marc Grosdemouge

[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bFhljSEseyM&w=560&h=315]

“Violette” de Martin Provost (2013) avec Emmanuelle Devos, Sandrine Kiberlain, Olivier Gourmet, Olivier Py, Jacques Bonnafé.

Jean-Marc Grosdemouge

21 commentaires sur “Violette Leduc, objet littéraire non identifié

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